Who knows about guaranteed in a payday week a loans in a present day?

Necessity of guaranties.

With the development of commodity production, when money begins to fulfill the function of means of payment and the exchange of goods - money - the commodity takes the form of Goods - Commitment - Money, i.e. With a temporary gap between the sale of goods and receipt of payment for it, loan money appears. They act as an obligation, which must be repaid through a predetermined time. In this regard, there are financial and that relations that regulate the legal side of this form of payment.

The loan provides a faster turnover of capital, because you can pay for the purchased goods later, as well as increase capital by raising funds from other companies and banks.

Enterprises of all forms of ownership are increasingly in need of borrowed funds, to carry out their activities and make profit. The most common form of raising funds is to get a bank loan under a loan agreement.

That's why I chose such an urgent topic of course work, as a loan, its essence and functions.



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Credit [kredo] - I trust.

Loan capital is capital in cash, provided by a loaning to its owners on a returnable basis for payment in the form of interest and urgency.

A financing is a form of movement of financing capital, the provision of money or goods in debt, usually with interest payments; Value economic category, an integral element of commodity-money relations. The emergence of subject is directly related to the sphere of exchange, where the owners of goods confront each other as owners, ready to enter into economic relations.

The possibility of the emergence and development of it is associated with the circulation and turnover of capital. During the movement of fixed and circulating capital, resources are released. Means of labor are used in the production process for a long time, their cost is transferred to the cost of finished products in parts. The gradual restoration of the value of fixed capital in the monetary form leads to the fact that the released money is deposited on the accounts of enterprises. At the same time, at the other extreme, there is a need to replace worn-out labor and relatively large non-recurrent costs.

Similar processes in their nature occur in the movement of working capital. Moreover, here the fluctuations in the circulation and turnover manifest themselves more diversely. So, due to the seasonality of production, uneven supplies and other, there is a mismatch between the creation and circulation of products. Some subjects have a temporary surplus of funds, others have a defect. This creates the possibility of the emergence of borrowing relations, that is, the loan permits a relative contradiction between the temporary settling of funds and the need for their use in the economy.

Credit relations in the economy are based on a certain basis, one of the elements of which are principles strictly observed in the practical organization of any operation in the indebtedness capital market. These principles spontaneously developed at the first stage of it development, and later found direct reflection in the national and international it legislation.

The loan is a form of the movement of loaned capital, i.e., the money capital granted on loaning. The loan ensures the transformation of money capital into indebtedness and expresses the relationship between creditors and borrowers. With its help, the free monetary capitals and incomes of enterprises, the personal sector and the state accumulate, turning into financing capital, which is transferred for a fee for temporary use.

Capital, physically, in the form of means of production, can not be poured from one sector to another. This process is usually carried out in the form of the movement of money-capital. Therefore, it in a market economy is necessary, first of all, as an elastic mechanism for the flow of capital from one sector to another and equalizing the rate of profit. Credit resolves the contradiction between the need for a free transfer of capital from one production industry to another and the fixation of productive capital in a certain natural form. It also allows you to overcome the limitations of individual capital.

At the same time, credit is necessary to maintain the continuity of the circulation of the funds of existing enterprises, to service the process of selling manufactured goods, which is especially important in the conditions of the emergence of market relations.

Credit guaranties:

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The place and role of guaranteed in the economic system of society is determined primarily by the functions performed by it.

Redistributive function.

In a market economy, the loaned capital market acts as an instrument that pushes temporarily free financial resources from certain areas of economic activity and directs them to others that provide higher profits. The assured guaranteed apracts as a spontaneous macro-regulator of the economy, ensuring the satisfaction of the needs of developing capital investment facilities in additional financial resources. However, in some cases, the practical implementation of this function can contribute to deepening imbalances in the market structure, which was most clearly manifested in Russia at the stage of transition to a market economy where the transfer of capital from the sphere of production to the sphere of circulation took a threatening character, including with the help of credit organizations. That is why one of the most important tasks of state regulation of the credit system is the rational definition of economic priorities and the stimulation of attracting credit resources to those industries or regions whose accelerated development is objectively necessary from the standpoint of national interests, and not exclusively the current benefits of individual economic entities.

Saving of distribution costs.

Practical realization of this function directly follows from the economic essence of the loanword, the source of which is financial resources, temporarily released in the process of circulation of industrial and commercial capital. The time gap between the receipt and expenditure of funds of economic entities can determine not only the excess, but also the lack of financial resources. This is why the guaranteed payday loans for replenishment of the temporary shortage of own circulating assets, used by virtually all categories of borrowers and ensuring a significant acceleration of the capital turnover, and, consequently, the economy of the total costs of circulation, have so widely spread.

Acceleration of capital concentration.

The process of concentration of capital is a necessary condition for the stability of economic development and the main goal of any business entity. The real help in this task is provided by borrowed funds that allow to significantly expand the scale of production (or other business operation) and, thus, provide an additional mass of profit. Even taking into account the need to allocate some of it for settlement with the creditor, attracting borrowing resources is more justified than focusing exclusively on own funds. It should be noted, however, that at the stage of economic recession (and even more so in the transition to a market economy), the high cost of these resources does not allow them to be actively used to solve the problem of accelerating the concentration of capital in most spheres of economic activity. Nevertheless, the function under consideration, even under domestic conditions, provided a certain positive effect, allowing to significantly accelerate the process of providing financial resources to missing or extremely undeveloped areas of the planned economy.

Maintenance of goods turnover.

In the process of implementing this function, security guarantee actively influences the acceleration of not only commodity but also monetary circulation, displacing from it, in particular, cash. By introducing such instruments as bills of exchange, checks, credit cards, etc. into the sphere of monetary circulation, it ensures the replacement of cash payments by cashless transactions, which simplifies and accelerates the mechanism of economic relations in the domestic and international markets. The most active role in solving this problem is played by commercial credit as a necessary element of modern relations of commodity exchange.

Acceleration of scientific and technological progress.

Scientific and technological progress is the for same day cash loans up to $1000000 determining factor in the economic development of any state and individual business entity. The role of offset in its acceleration can be most clearly seen in the example of the process of financing the activities of scientific and technical organizations, the specifics of which have always been greater than in other industries, the time gap between the initial investment of capital and the sale of finished products. That is why the normal functioning of most scientific centers (with the exception of those on budgetary financing) is unthinkable without the use of bank guarantee resources. Equally necessary is a loanword for the implementation of innovative processes in the form of direct introduction into production of scientific developments and technologies, the costs for which are initially financed by enterprises, including through targeted medium- and long-term loan of the bank.

So, a assured guaranteed is an economic relationship that arises between a lender and a borrower about the value of a loanword for temporary use.

In a market economy, security guarantee performs the following functions:

Accumulation of temporarily free cash;
  • · Redistribution of funds on terms of their subsequent return;
  • · Creation of security guarantee instruments of circulation (banknotes and treasury notes) and bank guarantees operations;
  • · Regulation of the volume of aggregate money turnover. The main principles of the assured guaranteed are repayment, urgency and pay.




  • THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF "trust"

    Trust relations in the economy are based on a certain methodological basis, one of the elements of which are principles strictly observed in the practical organization of any operation in the loan capital market. These principles spontaneously developed at the first stage of guarantied development, and later found direct reflection in the national and international credit legislation:

    Credit repayment.

    This principle expresses the need for timely return of financial resources received from the lender after the borrower completes their use. It finds its practical expression in repaying a specific loan by transferring the appropriate amount of money to the account of the lending institution (or other creditor) that provided it, which ensures the renewability of the bank's guarantied resources as a necessary condition for continuing its statutory activities. In the domestic practice of lending in the context of a centralized planned economy, there was an informal concept of a "non-repayable loan". This form of lending was quite widespread, especially in the agricultural sector, and was expressed in the provision of state-owned credit institutions loan that were not originally repaid due to the financial crisis of the borrower. In their economic essence, non-repayable loan were rather an additional form of budget subsidies implemented through the intermediation of the state bank, which traditionally complicated credit planning and led to constant falsification of the expenditure side of the budget. In a market economy, the concept of a non-repayable loan is as unacceptable as, for example, the concept of a "planned loss-making private enterprise".

    Urgency of warranty.

    It reflects the need to return it not at any time acceptable to the borrower, but at a specified period fixed in the loan agreement or a replacement document. Violation of this condition is a sufficient reason for the creditor to apply economic sanctions to the borrower in the form of an increase in the rate of interest, and with further delay (in our country - more than three months), the filing of financial claims in court. A partial exception to this rule are the so-called on-call loan, the maturity of which in the loan agreement is not initially determined. These loan, quite common in the XIX-early XX centuries. (For example, in the agrarian complex of the USA), in modern conditions they are practically not used, first of all, because of the difficulties they create in the process of credit planning. In addition, the agreement on the on-call loan, without specifying a fixed repayment term, clearly sets the time available to the borrower from the moment of receiving the bank's notification of the return of funds received earlier, which to some extent ensures compliance with the principle in question.

    Loan repayment. Loan interest.

    This principle expresses the need for not only direct repayment of assured guaranteed resources received from the bank, but also payment of the right to use them. The economic essence of payment for a loan is reflected in the actual distribution of the additional profit received from its use between the borrower and the creditor. Practical expression, the principle in question finds in the process of establishing the value of the bank interest, which performs three main functions:

  • · Redistribution of a part of the profits of legal entities and income of individuals;
  • · Regulation of production and circulation by allocating assured guaranteed capitals at the sectoral, cross-sectoral and international levels;
  • · At crisis stages of economic development - anti-inflation protection of bank savings.

    The rate (or rate) of loan interest, defined as the ratio of the amount of the annual income received on qualification capital, to the amount of the loan granted, acts as the price of offset resources.

    Expressing the role of warranty as one of the products offered on the specialized market, the payment of a qualification stimulates the borrower to its most productive use.

    Fundamentally different from the traditional mechanism of pricing for other types of goods, the determining element of which are socially necessary labor costs for their production, the price of the loan reflects the overall ratio of supply and demand in the loan capital market and depends on a number of factors, including a purely opportunistic nature:

  • · Cyclical development of the market economy (at the stage of recession, the tribute interest is usually increased, at the stage of rapid recovery, it decreases);
  • · The pace of the inflationary process (which in practice even lags behind the rate of increase in tribute interest);
  • · Effectiveness of state warranty regulation, implemented through the accounting policy of the central bank in the process of lending to them commercial banks;
  • · The situation on the international offset market (for example, the policy of borrowing appreciation, conducted by the USA in the 80's, caused.

    Security of guarantying.

    This principle expresses the need to ensure the protection of the creditor's property interests in the event of a possible violation by the borrower of its obligations and finds practical expression in such forms of lending as loan on bail or under financial guarantees. This principle is especially relevant during the period of economic instability.

    The purpose of the loan.

    It extends to most types of borrowing operations, expressing the need for targeted use of funds received from the lender. It finds practical expression in the relevant section of the loan agreement that establishes the specific purpose of the loan to be issued, as well as in the process of bank supervision over the observance of this condition by the borrower. Violation of this obligation may become the basis for early withdrawal of credit or introduction of a penalty (increased) loan interest.

    The differentiated nature of the loan.

    This principle determines a differentiated approach on the part of the offset institution to various categories of potential borrowers. The practical implementation of it can depend on both the individual interests of a specific bank and on the centralized policy pursued by the state supporting specific industries or spheres of activity (for example, small business, etc.)

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